Shibuya-kei vs. Akiba-kei

The new compilation CD AKSB is making headlines by bringing together two Japanese taste cultures generally considered as incompatible as oil and vinegar: the anime-obsessed otaku world of Akihabara (aka “Akiba-kei”) and the 1990s super-chic internationalist music, fashion, interior, and design movement referred to as “Shibuya-kei.”1 In this spirit of union, French lounge DJ legend Dimitri from Paris provides the theme song “Neko Mimi Mode” for the anime series Tsukuyomi -Moon Phase- while Pizzicato Five‘s Konishi Yasuharu — the Godfather of Shibuya-kei — remixes the theme song for cartoon Sgt. Frog (「ケロロ軍曹」). Besides those two icons, few superstars of Shibuya-kei make an appearance on the record, but with “Akihabara Pop” (aka “A-Pop”) carving a profitable niche in the doddering music market, the remaining few practitioners of the Shibuya-kei sound were probably happy to affiliate their genre with the otaku cash-cow.

Despite the “kei” designation (generally meaning “style”), Akiba-kei and Shibuya-kei are very different beasts, occupying different sections of the consumer spectrum and the schoolyard hierarchy. Shibuya-kei was basically a musical movement amongst an indie elite, while Akiba-kei describes a wider subculture of nerdy fantasy obsession. They both, however, have received media attention for “defining” their respective eras, and the differences between them help illustrate how Japanese pop culture has changed in the last 15 or so years. If Shibuya-kei represented the 1990s, what does Akiba-kei culture have to say about the first decade of the 21st century?

Both subcultures strongly share one thing: The members are “nerds” in the sense of being deeply obsessed with pop culture. Shibuya-kei pioneers Flipper’s GuitarOzawa Kenji and Oyamada Keigo (aka Cornelius) — made waves in the early ’90s market by introducing esoteric elements of British neo-acoustic, Madchester, French pops, Italian film soundtracks, late ’60s Moog records, ’60s mod jazz, and Brazilian bossa nova into Japanese-language pop songs. When asked about the source of their cool, they would offer, “We are basically just music nerds (otaku),” an honest self-reading. But because they were more knowledgeable about exciting foreign musical genres than almost everyone else, the media framed them as style leaders for young fashionable types on the lookout for the newest thing.

Akiba-kei fans are also obsessed with collecting and amassing information about pop cultural items, but notice the difference in interests: Instead of importing unknown foreign materials into the domestic cultural pool, Akiba otaku are interested in ruminating about domestic items and creating fan works based on these existing elements. Akiba culture is generally focused around the insular “uchi” — a term in Japanese encompassing the concepts “us” and “inside” and “at home.” The famously-introverted Akiba otaku not only confine their gaze to mostly domestic product but consume it privately or within confined social groupings. Shibuya-kei, on the other hand, focused on the “soto” — the “outside” world in the sense of both the wider “trend community” and international culture at large. Although there has always been a certain level of social discrimination against adults obsessed with video games, comic books, and cartoons, the main otaku culture has rarely been able to take on a “leadership” position for the media in that they do not offer or produce new elements for non-otaku to enjoy. They enjoy locally-produced Japanese culture, and for the media, this is old hat.

So the question is, why is Akiba-kei so “successful” at the moment when it had been perpetually dismissed as (slightly dangerous) nerd culture in the past? Shibuya-kei’s moment is much easier to explain: They were the latest elite in a general post-war Japanese trend of introducing “superior” foreign culture to a hungry consumer society. Akiba culture today still endures the same social prejudices since its dawning in the early ’80s, but suddenly the Japanese media has decided that “otaku are cool.” Some of this may be a misunderstanding of the “Japan Cool” concept: Since those foreigners think the cosplay guys, toy collectors, and goth-loli girls are “a super rad dudes,” I guess we should also pay them respect as our cultural leaders.2

More likely, however, is that the classic Japanese consumer trait of hoarding and collecting items has become rarer in recent years due to reduced consumer spending. At present, the Akiba otaku are the only widespread, definable group whose culture remains based on purchasing lots of items as a means to demonstrate fandom (ignore the New Rich’s conspicuous consumption for the moment). The media and producers celebrate the otaku as “model consumers,”3 secretly hoping that more mainstream Japanese will learn a thing or two from their passion for culture and consumerism. More importantly, things have gotten so bland in the contracting youth culture world that the “every-day-is-Halloween” weekend excitement of Akihabara beats everything else in terms of pep and pomp.

The developments in the media environment have also changed the cultural role for niche groups. The internet has made an “information-based elite” like the Shibuya-kei posse obsolete. When information was highly-valued, the individuals behind Flipper’s Guitar and Pizzicato Five could claim faster access to more foreign cultural information than the general population. The Net destroys this power imbalance by extending access to niche information and shortening the time lag between trend-setter cultural adoption and “majority” adoption. Due to this simple fact, the global fashion elite have always maintained a sort of disdain or nonchalance towards the Internet. (A certain ex-Shibuya-kei star is currently organizing grass-roots concerts by passing around fliers and asking fans to not mention the details on the Web.) Instead of fighting technological change, Akiba-kei otaku skillfully use the internet as a way to discuss and consecrate their favorite cultural items and disseminate new works to their community. This has only made the subculture stronger. In fact, Akiba-kei culture is the most appealing content attraction for the Japanese Internet at the moment.

In the end, the Akiba-kei subculture has won a top spot in the contemporary pop landscape because its culture has been least affected by the last decade’s democratization of media and the decline in the culture markets. Shibuya-kei’s aesthetic sense now seems passé, but moreover, the media complex no longer has much use for that breed of cutting-edge indie culture engaged in obscure international art and music. Insularity is not just limited to Akiba-kei in contemporary Japan, but defines the youth generation as a whole. With everyone dropping out of Cool Race 2000, predictable melodies and melodrama are the safer bet than trying to outcool your audience.

No one embodies this cultural shift more than young producer Nakata Yasutaka, who launched his unit Capsule in 2001 as a “Neo-Shibuya-kei” project trying to update Pizzicato Five’s bossa nova dance sound with modern music technology. Despite massive major label backing, he did not really gain much of an audience until abandoning the dated ’90s production and signing up as the producer for very-Akiba-kei “techno idols” Perfume. His cutesy digital robot pop propelled the girls to stardom and made Nakata a hero to obsessive otaku idol fans around the country. In the 21st century, international hipster cool cannot hold a candle to dancing, singing robotic Japanese dolls.


1 O-nii-kei magazines like Men’s Egg and Men’s Knuckle have started using the word “Shibuya-kei” in reference to their own style. This is accurate in a certain sense — this style is based in Shibuya — but confusing since the original Shibuya-kei already staked out that geolexical terminology. Maybe this is like the word “Emo” first describing bands like Sunny Day Real Estate and The Promise Ring in the 1990s and then the sonically-unrelated My Chemical Romance in ’00s.

For those wondering why “Shibuya-kei” was called “Shibuya-kei” in the first place, the word came from the popularity of certain “Western-sounding” Japanese musicians at HMV and Tower Records in Shibuya. The neighborhood itself never really embodied their ’60s-revival aesthetic.

2 I don’t want to harp on this point, but Japan Cool contains at least three disparate elements — otaku culture (Akiba-kei), cognoscenti culture (including the Shibuya-kei stream), and youth subcultures (Kogyaru, Bosozoku, etc.). Anime can be cool in certain contexts (album covers for rap artists, etc.), but this does not mean that the genre has been able to transcend its nerdiness outside of Japan. Being really into Takashi Murakami or really into Naruto are still not equal within the snob hierarchy.

3 Yes, this is a pun.

This article originally appeared on the Diamond Agency blog clast.

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9 Responses to “Shibuya-kei vs. Akiba-kei”

  1. theefer Says:

    Fascinating article, thank you.

    While in Japan recently, I was trying to find whether new cultural movements had succeeded to the Shibuya-kei from the 90′s, but it didn’t seem so. I kept wondering why, and what the new indie generation was into; I think this essay brings a beginning of answer to that.

    Yet, I’m sure there still is an indie elite. Any clue what kind of culture it’s feeding from nowadays?

  2. Tensigh Says:

    Very insightful. The link between Otakus looking inward versus Shibuya-Kei looking outward was quite an observation.

  3. W. David Marx Says:

    Indie elite

    There is an indie elite and I think it’s feeding from the global fashionista world. I just think they have very little influence on mainstream culture, nor really win the respect of the “average” person as being their style superior.

  4. John Says:

    I think there are two reasons why its cool to be an otaku now. First, as you mentioned, western culture has fetishized otaku, from Harajuku to Akiba, kids who were part of a cast-off Japanese subculture have now had their coolness justified with a western stamp of approval. “If the west thinks kids who like anime are cool they must know something we don’t.”–type of mindset. Second, the taboo around otaku has largely fallen off. Anyone who is really into something (music, anime, fashion, whatever) can become an otaku of that particular interest. People readily admit it about themselves and its lost most of its derogatory connotations. If you are particularly knowledgeable about an otaku topic there was a time when the only people who cared or respected that knowledge were within the community, the uchi. Yet, now, even the average Japanese person recognizes one’s devout commitment to something (anime obsession or something classic like learning a martial art or calligraphy) as a worthy endeavor.

  5. alinakabe.livejournal.com Says:

    but on one level it’s clearly just an expression the ‘staying in is the new going out’ spirit of the 00s everywhere and the parallel dissapearance of (non-commercial, public) space , again everywhere.

    (do you know a book from a few years back learning from Akihabara (obviously a play on
    venturi’s ‘Learning from LAs Vegas’); it elaborates brilliantly on the shibuya-out/akiba-in thing

    with the ‘everyone dropping out of Cool Race’ kind of stuff you keep insisting on i think you must be looking for the impossibly obvious (maybe as obvious as it would have looked to you before you were living in japan).. it’s all on it’s all going very much the same. (fixed-gear bikes for example – it goes all the way from real maniacs to hiroshi fujiwara/mash trendies to actual keirin culture)

  6. Why Specialize? Says:

    I don’t know; this cultural analysis feels really generalizing and hypothetical more than genuinely rooted in any thing tangible about either “movement.” If shibuya-kei was more overtly elitist, isn’t that an inward orientation rather than at outward one, regardless of how cosmopolitan its initial influences might have been? And surely there’s a competitive element in akihabara where everybody’s trying to outhip each other with their points of reference and breadth of knowledge about their realm of otaku-dom. It’s a subculture; chances are there’s something exclusionary and elitist about it.

    After all, the shibuya-kei are self-professed otaku, and isn’t being an otaku more of a matter of the posture (of hoarding) you take toward media consumption? Consumption is a matter of bringing something from outside of you in; international or domestic, it’s self-definition through consumption and one side’s love of suits versus another’s flair for red black lace and giant boots doesn’t necessarily indicate a huge difference between how they encode inside-outside/ingroup-outgroup differences.

    One of the beauties of subcultures (and maybe part of why their existence in Japan has been treated with such interest, given its supposed rigidity and reputation for strong barriers between ingroups and outgroups) is that they give people room for self-differentiation and creating identity but don’t seem to force participants into rejecting the larger national (hell, global) culture.

    I don’t think the inward-vs-outward typology is particularly compelling, and I think that part of the problem is that your definition of shibuya-kei is much more concrete, getting down to specific names and influences and referring solely to music, while your definition of akiba-kei is much more casual and intuitive and doesn’t mention music at all. Maybe that asymmetry is authentic to how the two terms are used in Japan; that seems quite likely. If one is mostly musical and defined in terms of itsm musicians, while the other is enough of a mass-movement that it can be defined just by suggesting a general “atmosphere,” then of course one is going to seem much more narrow and elitist than the other. But I don’t think the low-confidence-nerdiness-blossoming-into-an-adulthood-of-inclusiveness-and-generosity fantasy about akihabara is necessarily the experience that everybody has about it. I think it’s an idea that people have about akiba that constitutes a lot of its appeal to outsiders, however. But I’ll bet that there are alpha males and females and a cruel, cliquey, elitist culture (in addition to a lot of very nice people) to be found if you trace go in and observe actual akiba-kei social groops.

  7. W. David MARX Says:

    If shibuya-kei was more overtly elitist, isn’t that an inward orientation rather than at outward one, regardless of how cosmopolitan its initial influences might have been?

    The “in” vs. “out” can be confusing, but I think the “uchi” vs. “soto” dichotomy still works for the main point about Shibuya-kei bringing new outside influences into culture vs. Akiba-kei deeply admiring and re-conceptualizing pre-existing Japanese culture. If anything, Akiba-kei is making the Japanese pop music world, for example, a more extreme version of itself: manufactured idols, coy preteen sexuality, roboticness.

    it’s self-definition through consumption and one side’s love of suits versus another’s flair for red black lace and giant boots doesn’t necessarily indicate a huge difference between how they encode inside-outside/ingroup-outgroup differences.

    Well, no. Shibuya-kei believed that they were ahead of the general cultural industries in terms of taste (in the same conception of a linear hierarchy of “cool”), whereas Akiba-kei has come together in its exclusion from this hierarchy. Akiba-kei was never remotely considered “cool” until recently, and even now, the coolness seems to be somewhat ironic. There is a difference between subcultures forming from exclusion and those forming from snobbery.

    your definition of shibuya-kei is much more concrete, getting down to specific names and influences and referring solely to music, while your definition of akiba-kei is much more casual and intuitive and doesn’t mention music at all.

    I explained that I do not see them as equivalent subcultural forms at the beginning, but since they are being placed in opposition as marking the culture of their respective eras, I thought there some manner of comparison was necessary. Akiba-kei is much more amorphous, admittedly. But I think it is very distinct as a “taste culture.” Shibuya-kei also bled into interior design, fashion (think border shirts or Olive magazine), films, and other aesthetic fields, by the way.

    But I’ll bet that there are alpha males and females and a cruel, cliquey, elitist culture (in addition to a lot of very nice people) to be found if you trace go in and observe actual akiba-kei social groops.

    And the Shibuya-kei community was generally very nice. I don’t mean “snobby” on a micro level. I mean that their function in society was to be “above” the average tastes rather than outside of the normal mainstream flow of “what’s in and what’s out” like Akiba-kei.

  8. Chris_B Says:

    I cant imagine that the Shibuya-key folk would have ever celebrated Hatsune Miku.

  9. Fanmakimaki ファンマキマキ Says:

    Hum………..I have found, reading your post, that I’m 50% Shibuya kei and 50% Akiba kei.

    Fanmakimaki ファンマキマキ